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The city of Buenos Aires was first established as Ciudad de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre (literally "City of Our Lady Saint Mary of the Fair Winds") after Our Lady of Bonaria (Patroness Saint of Sardinia) on 2 February 1536 by a Spanish expedition led by Pedro de Mendoza.

The settlement founded by Mendoza was located in what is today the San Telmo district of Buenos Aires, south of the city centre.

Pedro de Mendoza called the city "Holy Mary of the Fair Winds", a name suggested by the chaplain of Mendoza's expedition – a devotee of the Virgin of Buen Ayre – after the Sardinian "Madonna de Bonaria" For many years, the name was attributed to a Sancho del Campo, who is said to have exclaimed: How fair are the winds of this land! But Eduardo Madero, in 1882 after conducting extensive research in Spanish archives, ultimately concluded that the name was indeed closely linked with the devotion of the sailors to Our Lady of Buen Ayre.

A second (and permanent) settlement was established in 1580 by Juan de Garay, who sailed down the Paraná River from Asunción (now the capital of Paraguay).

mayor) in 1996; previously, the mayor was directly appointed by the President of the Republic.

Buenos Aires is considered an 'alpha city' by the study Ga WC5.

This scheme frustrated the traders of Buenos Aires, and a thriving informal yet accepted by the authorities contraband industry developed inside the colonies and with the Portuguese.For the broader conurbation, see Greater Buenos Aires. The city is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the South American continent's southeastern coast."Buenos aires" can be translated as "fair winds" or "good airs", but the first one was the meaning intended by the founders in the 16th century, by the use of the original name "Real de Nuestra Señora Santa María del Buen Ayre".He dubbed the settlement "Santísima Trinidad" and its port became "Puerto de Santa María de los Buenos Aires." From its earliest days, Buenos Aires depended primarily on trade.During most of the 17th century, Spanish ships were menaced by pirates, so they developed a complex system where ships with military protection were dispatched to Central America in a convoy from Seville the only port allowed to trade with the colonies, to Lima, Peru and from it to the inner cities of the viceroyalty.

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